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Databases

AAS Historical Periodicals Collection Series 1-5VCU
A comprehensive collection of periodicals from the American Antiquarian Society documenting the life of America's people from the Colonial Era through the Civil War and Reconstruction and into the early 20th Century.

Abbreviationes OnlineVCU
Identifies abbreviations used in medieval Latin manuscripts (Latin paleography). Entries cover the period from the 8th century up to and including the 15th century.

ABELL (Annual Bibliography of English Language and Literature)VCU
The Modern Humanities Research Association's index of critical scholarship on English-language literature. Includes citations and selected full text for monographs, periodical articles, essay collections, doctoral dissertations, and other materials.

Academic Video Online (AVON)VCU Sponsored by VIVA, the Virtual Library of Virginia (www.vivalib.org)VIVA
Thousands of streaming videos covering a wide range of disciplines. Includes documentaries, interviews, feature films, news, and more distributed by PBS, BBC, CNN, CBS, Sony, A&E, Contemporary Arts Media, Royal Shakespeare, and many others.

ACLS Humanities E-BookVCU
Humanities E-Book (HEB) -- offered by the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS) -- is a digital collection of significant scholarship in the humanities.
Can be used for course content:Searchable collection of high-quality books in the humanities, recommended and reviewed by scholars. More about affordable course content

AdSpenderVCU
AdSpender tracks millions of brands across 18 media and ranks top spenders by industry, parent, brand, etc. Find how, when and where the competition spends their advertising dollars.

African American Biographical DatabaseVCU
Large collection of biographies with full-text access to primary source materials including rare books, photographs, and illustrations. Documents state and local figures, professionals, organization members, artists and writers, and more.

African Americans and Jim Crow, 1883-1922VCU
Documents from the beginning of Jim Crow to post-World War I that provide insights into African American culture and life during this period of segregation and disenfranchisement.

African Americans and Reconstruction, 1865-1883VCU
Documents related to African Americans and citizenship, voting rights, literacy, land rights, employment and more from the end of the Civil War to the beginning of Jim Crow.

African Newspapers: The British Library CollectionVCU
Chronicles African history and life from 64 newspapers published before 1901. Includes eyewitness reporting, advertisements, military reports, news and analysis of European exploration and colonization, and early moves toward self-governance.

African-American Poetry DatabaseVCU Sponsored by VIVA, the Virtual Library of Virginia (www.vivalib.org)VIVA
Searchable collection of poems by African American poets of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, providing a comprehensive survey of the early history of African American poetry.

Afro-Americana ImprintsVCU
Over 13,000 works comprising an unparalleled record of African American history, literature and culture.

Age of ExplorationVCU
Primary source material focusing on western European maritime exploration journeys from 1410 to 1920.

America in World War Two: Oral Histories and Personal AccountsVCU
Digitized primary sources from American military personnel and civilians during World War II, including oral history videos, military records, digitized artifacts, correspondences, diaries, photographs, and ephemera.

America: History and LifeVCU Sponsored by VIVA, the Virtual Library of Virginia (www.vivalib.org)VIVA
Article abstracts and citations of literature covering the history and culture of the United States and Canada from prehistory to the present.

American Civil Liberties Union Papers, 1912-1990VCU
Archive of primary source materials on civil rights, race, gender, free speech, citizenship, discrimination, immigration, labor, radicalism, and issues relating to the U.S. Supreme Court.

American History in VideoVCU
Thousands of videos for the study of American history, with contemporaneous video footage from the 1890s to the 1980s as well as historical documentaries from leading video producers.

American Indian NewspapersVCU
Historical and contemporary periodicals published by Indigenous communities in the United States and Canada. Features national, local, and student publications from 1828 to the present.

American Periodicals Series VCU
Periodicals published between 1740 and 1940, including special interest and general magazines, literary and professional journals, children's and women's magazines, and more. Digitized images of pages show original typography, layout, and graphics.

American Poetry DatabaseVCU Sponsored by VIVA, the Virtual Library of Virginia (www.vivalib.org)VIVA
Full-text poems by American poets from the Colonial period to the early twentieth century, drawn from over 1,200 print sources. Includes accompanying dedications, notes, arguments, and epigraphs where applicable.

American State Papers, 1789-1838VCU
Legislative and executive documents of the first 14 U.S. Congresses, digitized from the original print volumes. Coverage serves as an essential complement to the U.S. Congressional Serial Set from 1817 to 1994.

American Underworld: The Flash PressVCU
Rare insights into urban life, criminal activity, and the underground economy and literature of the 19th century.

Archive FinderVCU
Current directory of thousands of repositories and collections of primary source materials housed in the United States and United Kingdom.

Archive of AmericanaVCU
Combined interface for searching Early American Imprints I & II (1639-1819), American State Papers (1789-1838), and the U.S. Congressional Serial Set (1817-1980).

ARTFL: A Textual DatabaseVCU
Searchable database of French-language texts from the 12th to the 20th century. Includes classic French literature, Provençal poetry and other verse, non-fiction prose and technical writing.

Arts and Humanities Citation Index via ISI Web of ScienceVCU
Database of references cited in articles from the world's leading arts and humanities journals. Allows searching by subject, work, author, journal, and author address. Web of Science Tutorial

ARTstorVCU
Image database featuring a range of images in the arts, architecture, humanities, and social sciences. Collections have been contributed by leading museums, photo archives, scholars, and artists.

ATLA Religion Database with ATLA SerialsVCU
Provides bibliographic records to journal articles, book reviews, and essay collections in all fields of religious and theological studies, with access to full-text articles and book reviews in the AtlaSerials full-text journal collections.

Biography and Genealogy Master IndexVCU
Indexes millions of biographical sketches from reference sources covering individuals, both living and deceased, from every field of activity and from all areas of the world. Includes names, birth/death years, and bibliographic references.

Black DramaVCU
Full text of thousands of plays written from the mid-1800s to the present. Includes published and previously unpublished works from Africa, as well as North America, the Caribbean, and other African diaspora countries.

Black Freedom Struggle in the 20th CenturyVCU
Primary source documents from the records of federal government agencies, the personal papers of African Americans, and records of civil rights organizations.

Black Historical NewspapersVCU
Full-text access to the backfiles of major African American community newspapers. Offers primary source material essential to the study of American history and African-American culture, history, politics, and the arts.

Black Studies CenterVCU
Black Studies Center is a digital core collection of primary and secondary sources in arts, history, literature, politics, and religion that record and illuminate the Black experience, from ancient Africa through modern times.

Black Studies in VideoVCU
Documentaries, interviews, and archival footage covering African American history, politics, art and culture, family structure, gender relationships, and social and economic issues.

Book Review Digest PlusVCU
Citations for reviews of fiction and non-fiction books, including selected review excerpts and full-text reviews.

Book Review Index Online PlusVCU
Indexes reviews from scholarly and popular journals primarily in the fields of general fiction and non-fiction, the humanities, and the social sciences. Includes citations and full-text reviews.

British History Online
British History Online is a digital library of primary and secondary sources for the history of Britain and Ireland, focusing on the period from 1300 to 1800.

British Literary Manuscripts OnlineVCU
Facsimile images of literary manuscripts, including letters and diaries, drafts of poems, plays, novels, and other literary works, and similar materials from medieval times through 1900.

British Periodicals I-IIIVCU
Searchable facsimile images for journals dating from the 17th to the 20th century. This resource contains Collections I-III covering historical, artistic, and popular periodicals.

Broadway HDVCU
Broadway HD is a streaming collection of live theatrical performances from Broadway. An exclusive collection of nineteen performances from the New York Theatre scene, the productions in this resource will change.

Burney Collection NewspapersVCU
Newspapers, Acts of Parliament, addresses, pamphlets, proclamations, and broadsides from 17th and 18th century English news media, available through the British Library.

Civil War: A Newspaper PerspectiveVCU
Full-text database of major articles published between November 1, 1860 and April 15, 1865, from three contemporary newspapers: The New York Herald, The Charleston Mercury, and the Richmond Inquirer.

Colonial AmericaVCU
Primary source documents from The National Archives UK covering North America from 1606 to 1822. Includes original correspondence between the British government and the governments of the American colonies.

Comic Book Index
A growing, searchable index to the comic book titles held in Cabell Library's Special Collections and Archives.

Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Social Sciences & HumanitiesVCU
Covers published literature from the most significant conferences, seminars, workshops, symposia, colloquia, and conventions worldwide, from 1990 - present.

Contemporary AuthorsVCU Sponsored by VIVA, the Virtual Library of Virginia (www.vivalib.org)VIVA
Bibliographical information on modern authors. Part of Literature Resource Center. Can be searched separately or with other LRC resources.

Data AxleVCU
Data Axle, formerly ReferenceUSA, provides research on businesses including data summaries by neighborhood, city or state and by type or size of business. Users can conduct market research for similar or competitive businesses in a specific locality.

Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford DNB)VCU
Browsable, searchable, illustrated collection of significant, influential, or notorious figures who shaped British history. Living persons are excluded.

Digital Theatre +VCU
A platform for the performing arts providing students with access to full-length productions, interviews, texts, rehearsals, and other educational resources.

Dissertations and Theses Full Text (ProQuest)VCU
Comprehensive and curated collection of dissertations and theses from universities around the world, with full-text availability for most titles.

Documenting the American South
Documenting the American South (DocSouth), a digital publishing initiative sponsored by the UNC Libraries, provides access to digitized primary materials that offer Southern perspectives on American history and culture.

Docuseek Complete CollectionVCU Sponsored by VIVA, the Virtual Library of Virginia (www.vivalib.org)VIVA
Documentaries covering anthropology, area studies, the arts, criminal justice, education, environmental studies, global studies, health, history, political science, psychology, sciences, sociology, women's studies, and more.

Early American Imprints, Series I: Evans, 1639-1800VCU
Books, pamphlets, broadsides, and other imprints published in 17th- and 18th-century America. Covers thousands of subjects in full-text.

Early American Imprints, Series II: Shaw-Shoemaker, 1801-1819VCU
Books, pamphlets, broadsides, and other imprints of early 19th-century America. Covers thousands of subjects in full-text.

Early American Newspapers, Series 1-4VCU
Chronicles the evolution of American history, culture, and daily life from 1690-1922. Often printed by small-town printers, these newspapers are a record of hundreds of diverse American communities.

Early English Books OnlineVCU
Early English Books Online (EEBO) contains digital facsimiles of virtually every work printed in England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales and British North America and works in English printed elsewhere from 1473-1700 -- more than 125,000 titles.
Can be used for course content:Page images of virtually every work printed in England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales and British North America and works in English printed elsewhere from 1473-1700. More about affordable course content

Early Modern England: Society, Culture & Everyday Life, 1500-1700VCU
Primary source materials covering everyday, political, religious, working, trading, and administrative life in England during the 16th and 17th centuries.

East India CompanyVCU
Digitized collection of India Office Records from the British Library, London. Documents spanning 1599 to 1947 include royal charters, correspondence, trading diaries, council meeting minutes, and reports of expeditions, among others.

Eighteenth Century Collections OnlineVCU
Page by page digital images of every historically significant text published in 18th-century Great Britain and Colonial America, from books by well-known and lesser-known authors, to directories, Bibles, sheet music, sermons, and advertisements.

Eighteenth Century Drama: Censorship, Society and the StageVCU
Hundreds of playbills, theatre records, and correspondence related to plays submitted for license between 1737-1824. Contains the archive of the Larpent Collection and two reference works on the eighteenth century London stage.

EIU ViewpointsVCU
EIU Viewpoints provides country-specific short, medium and long-term forecasts, industry data and analysis for 26 sectors, proprietary ratings on the business environment, and supply and demand forecasts for 40 critical goods.

English Poetry DatabaseVCU Sponsored by VIVA, the Virtual Library of Virginia (www.vivalib.org)VIVA
Thousands of works by poets from the Anglo-Saxon period to the end of the nineteenth century, including accompanying text written by the poet where applicable.

English Verse Drama DatabaseVCU Sponsored by VIVA, the Virtual Library of Virginia (www.vivalib.org)VIVA
Works in verse either acted on or intended for the stage, spanning the late thirteenth century to the end of the nineteenth century.

Essay and General Literature IndexVCU
Citations to essays and articles contained in collections of essays and miscellaneous works. Focuses on the humanities and social sciences, with subject coverage ranging from economics and history to criticism of literary works, drama, and film.

Ethnomusicology: Global Field RecordingsVCU
Global collection of ethnomusicological field recordings and interviews, educational recordings, film footage, field notebooks, slides, correspondence and ephemera.

European Views of the Americas: 1493 to 1750VCU
Searchable bibliographic index to print materials about the Americas written in Europe before 1750. Created from European Americana: A Chronological Guide to Works Printed in Europe Relating to the Americas, 1493-1750.

Film & Television Literature Index with Full TextVCU
Comprehensive bibliographic and full-text database of journal articles and books covering the spectrum of television and film. Covers areas such as film and television theory, preservation and restoration, cinematography, and more.

Filmakers Library OnlineVCU
Award-winning documentaries and independent films presenting points of view and historical and current experiences from diverse cultures and traditions worldwide.

Films on Demand Master Academic CollectionVCU
Streaming films covering core academic subjects. Also includes archival films and newsreels.

First World WarVCU
Primary source material related to the First World War highlighting the experiences of soldiers, civilians, and governments. Archives span from personal narratives and artifacts to military files, propaganda, ephemera, and artwork.

Food and Drink in HistoryVCU
Primary source material documenting food and drink in social and cultural history from the 16th century to the present. Archives range from cookbooks, periodicals, papers and reports to artifacts, ephemera, packaging, oral histories and film.

Foreign Office Files for Japan, 1919-1952VCU
British Foreign Office files covering relations with Japan between 1919 and 1952. Includes diplomatic dispatches, correspondence, maps, summaries of events, and other materials.

Foreign Office Files for Southeast Asia, 1963-1980VCU
British Foreign Office files covering relations with Southeast Asia between 1963 and 1980, with particular emphasis on the creation of Malaysia and the response from the wider region.

Gale Literary Index
Master index to major literary series produced by the Gale Group, including Contemporary Authors Online, Dictionary of Literary Biography Complete Online, and Literature Criticism Online, among others.

HarpWeek: The Civil War Era and Reconstruction I and IIVCU Sponsored by VIVA, the Virtual Library of Virginia (www.vivalib.org)VIVA
Searchable scanned images of all pages of Harper's Weekly, the leading illustrated newspaper of its time. All articles, illustrations, advertisements, and literary offerings are indexed. Supplemental Web sites from HarpWeek

Historical AbstractsVCU Sponsored by VIVA, the Virtual Library of Virginia (www.vivalib.org)VIVA
Article abstracts and citations of books and dissertations covering world history from 1450 to the present; excludes the United States and Canada.

HistoryMakersVCU
Oral histories of African-Americans from all walks of life, including politicians, authors, civil rights activists, religious leaders, musicians, legal scholars, and many others. Includes video footage.

Humanities AbstractsVCU
Broad coverage of humanities disciplines with indexes and abstracts to articles from English-language periodicals as well as book reviews, interviews, obituaries, original works of fiction, and reviews of plays, television, and radio programs.

Humanities International CompleteVCU Sponsored by VIVA, the Virtual Library of Virginia (www.vivalib.org)VIVA
Indexing and abstracts for articles, essays, reviews, and original creative works in all aspects of the humanities, with full-text for select journal articles, books, and other materials. Includes all data from the Humanities International Index.

Index IslamicusVCU
Covers publications in European languages on all aspects of Islam and the Muslim world. Includes history, beliefs, societies, cultures, languages, and literature.

Indigenous Peoples: North AmericaVCU
Primary-source collections from Canadian and American institutions, providing insight into the cultural, political, and social history of Native peoples. Includes manuscripts, newspapers, Bibles, dictionaries, and primers in Indigenous languages.

International Index to Black Periodicals (IIBP)VCU
Abstracts, indexing, and select full text for scholarly and popular journals, newspapers, and newsletters from the United States, Africa, and the Caribbean, spanning multidisciplinary issues vital to Black Studies.

International Medieval Bibliography (IMB)VCU
Leading bibliography of the European Middle Ages (c. 400-1500). Covers articles in journals and miscellany volumes worldwide. Click on "Enter Databases" and then on "Go".

Iter Gateway to the Middle Ages and RenaissanceVCU
Portal to resources including a bibliography of citations for books, articles, and essays on all aspects of medieval and Renaissance life. Also includes a directory of scholars, Iter Italicum, a collection of Capito letters, and more.

JSTORVCU
Searchable backfiles of core journals in the humanities, social sciences, and sciences. (Backfiles end typically 3 - 6 years prior to the current date).

JSTOR Sustainability Collection VCU
Discover a wide range of journals, ebooks, and research reports in the field of sustainability. The subjects of resilience and sustainability are explored broadly, covering research on environmental stresses and their impact on society.

Latin American Newspapers Series I & IIVCU
Digitized Central and South American newspapers published from 1805 to 1922 in Spanish, Portuguese, and English, chronicling the evolution of Latin America through eyewitness reports, editorials, legislative information, advertisements, and more.

Linguistics & Language Behavior AbstractsVCU Sponsored by VIVA, the Virtual Library of Virginia (www.vivalib.org)VIVA
Indexes and abstracts international literature on linguistics in the areas of phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics.

Literature Criticism OnlineVCU
Includes a range of modern and historical views on authors and their works across eras and genres, with scholarly and popular commentary from broadsheets, pamphlets, encyclopedias, books, and periodicals.

Literature Resource CenterVCU Sponsored by VIVA, the Virtual Library of Virginia (www.vivalib.org)VIVA
Bibliographic and select full-text access to biographies, bibliographies, and critical analyses of novelists, poets, essayists, and journalists. Includes Contemporary Authors Online, Contemporary Literary Criticism Select, and more.

Literature, Arts and Medicine Database
Annotations to paintings, prose, poetry, film, video, and other works of art for teaching and research in the medical humanities.

London Low LifeVCU
Insight into the teeming streets of Victorian London, including the vibrant culture of street literature. Images of rare books, ephemera, maps, and other materials relating to 18th, 19th, and early 20th century London. Includes Tallis' Street Views.

Luminarium
Biographical and critical commentary, as well as full-text versions of the works of medieval, Renaissance, and 17th-century authors. Includes links to critical essays, art works, and music sound clips.

Middle English CompendiumVCU
Three major Middle English resources: an electronic version of the Middle English Dictionary (MED), bibliography of Middle English texts (limited to those cited by the MED), and a searchable full-text corpus of Middle English prose and verse.

MLA International BibliographyVCU Sponsored by VIVA, the Virtual Library of Virginia (www.vivalib.org)VIVA
The Modern Language Association of America's index of critical scholarship on literature, language, linguistics, folklore, and the dramatic arts.

New York TimesVCU
Full image of articles published in The New York Times including illustrations and advertisements. Covers from the first issue in 1851 to three years prior to the current year.

Nichols Collection NewspapersVCU
London newspapers and pamphlets gathered by antiquarian and printer John Nichols, spanning the 17th and 18th centuries. Features many rare news media sources including The London Gazette and The Tatler.

Nineteenth Century Collections OnlineVCU
Digital archive of primary source collections from the "long" 19th century. Includes monographs, newspapers, manuscripts, diaries, letters, maps, statistics and more. Offers annotation and tagging tools.

Nineteenth-Century American Drama: Popular Culture and Entertainment, 1820-1900VCU
Virtually every play published in the United States from 1820-1900, including annotated copies of prompt books and manuscripts.

Opera in VideoVCU
Comprehensive collection of operatic performances, interviews, and documentaries, covering the most commonly studied operas in music history, opera literature, and performance classes.

Oral History OnlineVCU
Index and links to web-based oral histories in English in archives and libraries around the world, with links to full text, audio, and video when available.

Orlando: Women's Writing in the British Isles from the Beginnings to the PresentVCU
Text and reference resource covering Britain's major and minor women authors of all time periods, with timelines, bibliographies, sets of internal links, biographies, and other contextual material.

Oxford English DictionaryVCU Sponsored by VIVA, the Virtual Library of Virginia (www.vivalib.org)VIVA
Searchable, browseable full text of the Oxford English Dictionary, containing definitions, etymological analysis, variant spellings, and pronunciation.

Parker Library on the WebVCU
High-resolution copies of manuscripts in the Parker Library of Corpus Christi College. Manuscripts date from the sixth through the sixteenth centuries CE. Includes extensive bibliographic material related to the collection.

Pennsylvania GazetteVCU
Full-text database of the Pennsylvania Gazette, a premier newspaper published during the colonial, Revolutionary, and early national periods. Includes text for important documents printed in the Gazette, such as "Common Sense."

Perdita Manuscripts, 1500-1700VCU
Contains 16th and 17th century manuscripts from early modern British women authors, including account books, diaries, prayer, prose, translations, travel writing, verse and more.

Philosopher's IndexVCU
Indexes scholarly research in all major fields of philosophy. Covers journals, books, and book reviews.

PhilPapersVCU
PhilPapers is an online research hub for philosophy, with an index for journal articles and book reviews, an open access aggregator that locates content from thousands of archives, and an extensive bibliography.

Play IndexVCU
Indexes classical and historical plays, along with the works of contemporary playwrights. Covers new editions and translations, with descriptive annotations to summarize plot and indicate musical requirements.

Poets On ScreenVCU
Video clips of poets reading their own and other poets' works. Part of ProQuest's Literature Online platform.

Project MuseVCU Sponsored by VIVA, the Virtual Library of Virginia (www.vivalib.org)VIVA
Database of peer-reviewed academic journals and electronic books in the humanities and social sciences from university presses and scholarly societies around the world.

Religion and Philosophy CollectionVCU
Full-text journals covering central topics in theology and philosophy research, including world religions, denominations, biblical studies, religious history, epistemology, political philosophy, philosophy of language, and history of philosophy.

Rotunda: American History Collection
Three collections of primary source material spanning the American Founding Era, Antebellum, Civil War, and Reconstruction, and the American Century. Includes papers of political leaders, presidential tape recordings, and biographical information.

Shakespeare's Globe ArchiveVCU
Documents related to over 300 productions from 1997-2016 at Shakespeare's Globe, including architectural plans, photographs, prompt books, wardrobe notes, musical scores, oral histories, essays, and video interviews.

Short Story IndexVCU
Extensive index to short stories from collections and anthologies, searchable by author or genre.

Slavery and Anti-Slavery: A Transnational ArchiveVCU
Primary source materials on the transatlantic slave trade. Documents the legal, personal, and economic aspects of the slavery system, the abolition movement, and the dynamics of emancipation in the U.S., Latin America, the Caribbean, and elsewhere.

Times Digital ArchiveVCU
Digital facsimile of over 200 years of The Times (London) from 1785.

TLS Historical ArchiveVCU
Features the complete run of The Times Literary Supplement from 1902 to five years ago. Contains reviews, letters, poems, articles, and previously unavailable biographical information regarding contributors.

TOCS-IN
TOCS-IN provides tables of contents for select classics, Near Eastern studies, and religion print journals. Covers the archaeology, architecture, art, culture, history, literature, and religion of ancient Greece and Rome. Some pre-1992 content.

Twentieth Century North American DramaVCU
Full-text plays from the United States and Canada, from major and lesser-known authors. Includes playbills, posters, and other ephemera.

Umbra Search African American History
Digital collection of images, videos, books, and other materials documenting African American history and culture. Sourced from archives, libraries, museums, and other U.S. repositories.

Underground and Independent Comics, Comix, and Graphic NovelsVCU
Primary source database focusing on underground and independent North American and European adult comics and graphic novels. Also includes interviews, commentary, theory, and criticism.

Virginia Company ArchivesVCU
Founding and economic development of Virginia as seen through the papers of the Virginia Company of London. Includes Ferrar papers of Magdalene College, Cambridge. Also includes information on London's economic history.

Virginia Heritage: Guides to Manuscript & Archival Collections in Virginia Sponsored by VIVA, the Virtual Library of Virginia (www.vivalib.org)VIVA
Database of finding aids with descriptions of manuscript and archival collections in Virginia universities, colleges, and institutions. Provides information about historical materials documenting Virginia history and culture from 1607 to the present.

Voice of the Shuttle
Voice of the Shuttle, established in 1994, provides a structured and briefly annotated guide to online resources for a wide range of academic disciplines in the humanities -- and points toward the transformation of those disciplines as they interact

Wellesley Index to Victorian PeriodicalsVCU
Identifies authors of articles within major Victorian periodicals and provides a bibliography for each contributor. Covers 1824-1900, with the exception of the Edinburgh Review, which is indexed from the first issue in 1802.

Women Writers OnlineVCU
Continually-expanding full-text collection of early women's writing in English, containing full transcriptions of texts published from the 16th through the 19th centuries. Special focus on materials that are rare or inaccessible.